Creatine Supplementation - Journal of the International Society for Sports Nutrition
Jose Antonio1* , Darren G. Candow2 , Scott C. Forbes3 , Bruno Gualano4 , Andrew R. Jagim5 , Richard B. Kreider6 , Eric S. Rawson7 , Abbie E. Smith-Ryan8 , Trisha A. VanDusseldorp9 , Darryn S. Willoughby10 and Tim N. Ziegenfuss11
Based on our evidence-based scientific evaluation of the literature, we conclude that:
(1). Creatine supplementation does not always lead to water retention.
(2). Creatine is not an anabolic steroid.
(3). Creatine supplementation, when ingested at recommended dosages, does not result in kidney damage and/or renal dysfunction in healthy individuals.
(4). The majority of available evidence does not support a link between creatine supplementation and hair loss / baldness.
(5). Creatine supplementation does not cause dehydration or muscle cramping.
(6). Creatine supplementation appears to be generally safe and potentially beneficial for children and adolescents.
(7). Creatine supplementation does not increase fat mass.
(8). Smaller, daily dosages of creatine supplementation (3-5 g or 0.1 g/kg of body mass) are effective. Therefore, a creatine ‘loading’ phase is not required.
(9). Creatine supplementation and resistance training produces the vast majority of musculoskeletal and performance benefits in older adults. Creatine supplementation alone can provide some muscle and performance benefits for older adults.
(10). Creatine supplementation can be beneficial for a variety of athletic and sporting activities.
(11). Creatine supplementation provides a variety of benefits for females across their lifespan.
(12). Other forms of creatine are not superior to creatine monohydrate.